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Liver Cancer Treatment in Mumbai

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Liver cancer refers to a disease where malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver. It’s important to differentiate between primary liver cancer, which starts within the liver, and secondary (or metastatic) liver cancer, which spreads to the liver from other parts of the body.
Liver cancer can manifest in various forms, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) being the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. Factors that significantly elevate the risk of developing liver cancer include chronic infections with hepatitis B or C, cirrhosis, certain genetic disorders, and exposure to toxins such as aflatoxins

What is Welling Homeopathy treatment for Liver Cancer?

Welling Homeopathy treatment for Liver Cancer complements to conventional medical therapies. The Welling Homeopathy treatment approach focuses on the following areas:

  1. Control and Management of Cancer: Homeopathy at Welling Clinics is designed to help you take control and manage your liver cancer more effectively.
  2. Tolerating Conventional Therapies: The treatment aims to assist patients in tolerating chemotherapy or radiation therapy better.
  3. Post-Surgical Recovery: After cancer surgery, the homeopathic remedies are intended to support faster recovery.
  4. Prevention of Recurrence: It is suggested that these treatments could also help prevent a recurrence of liver cancer.
  5. Palliative Care: In advanced stages of liver cancer, Welling Homeopathy might serve as a palliative treatment to improve the quality of life.
  6. Cancer Growth and Pain: The treatment is claimed to help reverse cancer growths and reduce cancer pains.

It is also mentioned that Welling Homeopathy works closely with other physicians and cancer specialists to provide a holistic cancer treatment approach. It’s important for patients to discuss with their primary oncologists before initiating any alternative treatment methods such as Homeopathy to ensure a coordinated and safe approach to cancer care.

For those interested in exploring this homeopathic treatment for liver cancer, the Welling Homeopathy clinic provides consultation with a specialist in Mumbai, which can be arranged through the contact number provided: (+91) 80 80 850 950.

Liver Cancer Treatment in Mumbai

What are the symptoms of liver cancer?

Liver cancer often does not cause symptoms in its early stages. As the cancer grows, it may begin to cause symptoms like:

  • Abdominal pain, especially in the upper right side below the ribs where the liver is located. The pain may be dull, sharp, or cramping.
  • Unexplained weight loss. Losing a significant amount of weight without trying could be a sign of liver cancer.
  • Loss of appetite and feeling full after eating only a small amount. This can be due to a buildup of fluid in the abdomen.
  • Fatigue and weakness. Liver cancer can cause a lack of energy and strength.
  • Nausea and vomiting. The cancer may press on the stomach and cause feelings of sickness. Vomiting blood may also occur.
  • An enlarged liver or mass that can be felt under the ribs on the right side.
  • Jaundice, which causes yellowing of the skin and eyes. This happens when the liver cannot properly handle bile.

The symptoms of liver cancer often only show up once the cancer is already at an advanced stage. This makes early detection through screening important. Anyone experiencing these symptoms should see their doctor as soon as possible.

How is liver cancer diagnosed?

Liver cancer is often diagnosed using a combination of blood tests, imaging tests, biopsy, and surgery. Some of the key diagnostic tests include:

Blood Tests

Doctors may order blood tests to look for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker that can be elevated in people with liver cancer. However, AFP levels alone are not enough to diagnose liver cancer.

Imaging Tests

Imaging tests allow doctors to visualize the liver and look for masses or tumors. Common tests include:

  • Ultrasound: Uses sound waves to create images of the liver. It can help detect masses and determine if they are solid or filled with fluid.

  • CT scan: Uses x-rays and contrast dye to create cross-sectional images of the liver. It provides detailed views and can show small tumors.

  • MRI: Uses radio waves and magnets to produce detailed images of the liver and soft tissues. It may be better than CT for identifying some liver cancers.

Liver Biopsy

A liver biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver tumor to examine under a microscope. This can confirm cancer and determine the type and grade. It is done by inserting a needle through the skin into the liver tumor.

Exploratory Surgery

If other tests are inconclusive, surgeons may conduct exploratory surgery and open the abdomen to visually inspect and take a sample of the liver. This allows direct visualization of tumors.

What are the risk factors for developing liver cancer?

Certain factors can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. The main risk factors include:

  • Chronic liver diseases – Having chronic viral hepatitis B or C, cirrhosis, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease increases liver cancer risk. These conditions cause long-term inflammation and damage that can lead to cancer. Hepatitis B and C are the most common causes worldwide.

  • Alcohol abuse – Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol regularly can lead to liver inflammation and cirrhosis. This damage increases the risk of liver cancer.

  • Obesity and diabetes – Being obese or having type 2 diabetes increases the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and liver cancer. Insulin resistance may contribute to cancer formation.

  • Aflatoxins – These toxic substances produced by mold on stored grains and nuts can damage the liver and cause cancer growth. Aflatoxins are a problem in parts of Asia and Africa.

  • Family history – Having a close relative who developed liver cancer may increase your risk. Genetic disorders like hemochromatosis also raise liver cancer risk.

Getting screened and making lifestyle changes can lower liver cancer risk for those with these underlying conditions. Avoiding alcohol, controlling weight, and managing viral hepatitis are key prevention strategies.

What Are Types of Liver Cancer?

There are several types of cancer that can start in the liver. The main types are:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

This is the most common form of liver cancer, accounting for around 75% of cases. HCC starts in the main type of liver cell (hepatocyte). It is usually seen in people with chronic liver diseases like cirrhosis.

Cholangiocarcinoma

This type starts in the ducts of the liver that carry bile. It accounts for approximately 15% of liver cancers. There are two main types of cholangiocarcinoma:

  • Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma occurs in the ducts inside the liver.
  • Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma occurs in the ducts outside the liver.

Angiosarcoma

This rare type of liver cancer starts in the blood vessels of the liver and grows very rapidly. Exposure to certain toxins like vinyl chloride or thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) can increase the risk.

Hepatoblastoma

This very rare type of liver cancer occurs mainly in children under 3 years old. The cancer cells are similar to fetal liver cells. The cause is usually unknown.

What types of treatment are available for liver cancer?

There are several treatment options available for liver cancer depending on the stage and progression of the disease. The main treatments include:

Surgery

  • Liver resection – This involves surgically removing the tumor along with a margin of healthy liver tissue. This is usually done for patients with early stage liver cancer when the tumor is localized.

  • Liver transplant – This may be an option for some patients with small tumors. It involves removing the entire liver and replacing it with a healthy donor liver.

  • Ablation – This destroys tumors without removing them. The main types used are radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation. They use heat or cold to kill cancer cells.

Radiation Therapy

  • Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells. This may be done before or after surgery to help shrink tumors. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers higher doses over fewer treatments.

Chemotherapy

  • Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Systemic chemotherapy circulates through the whole body. Regional chemotherapy delivers drugs directly to the liver.

Targeted Therapy

  • Targeted drugs and immunotherapy help block the growth and spread of cancer. Sorafenib is a common targeted therapy drug used for liver cancer.

Immunotherapy

  • Immunotherapy boosts the body’s immune system to fight cancer. Checkpoint inhibitor drugs are a type of immunotherapy used for some liver cancers.

The best treatment options are determined based on the stage of liver cancer and other factors like underlying liver disease. Combining different therapies may provide the most benefit.

What is the prognosis for someone with liver cancer?

The prognosis for liver cancer depends on several factors, especially the stage at diagnosis. When liver cancer is detected at an early stage, the 5-year survival rate is much higher compared to later stages.

Overall, the 5-year relative survival rate for liver cancer is about 18%. This means that around 18% of people diagnosed with liver cancer will survive another 5 years after diagnosis. However, survival rates can vary substantially based on the stage:

  • Stage I: Around 43% 5-year relative survival rate
  • Stage II: Around 28%
  • Stage III: Around 7%
  • Stage IV: Around 2%

In general, the earlier liver cancer is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. Small tumors that are localized in the liver have a much higher survival rate compared to larger tumors that have spread.

Other factors that affect prognosis include the person’s overall health, liver function, and response to treatment. Those who are relatively healthy besides the cancer, have good liver function, and respond well to treatment have the best outlook.

Prognosis also depends on the treatment received. Potential treatments like surgery, ablation, embolization, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted drugs can eradicate the cancer or prolong life if the cancer cannot be cured. Those who have more treatment options available generally have better chances of long-term survival.

With continuing advances in cancer treatments, survival rates may continue to improve in the future. But early detection through screening remains key – identifying liver cancer at its earliest and most treatable stage leads to the best prognosis.

Can liver cancer be prevented?

There are several ways to reduce your risk of developing liver cancer:

Get the Hepatitis B Vaccine

The hepatitis B virus is a major risk factor for liver cancer. Getting vaccinated against hepatitis B can greatly reduce your risk. The vaccine is recommended for infants and for adults at high risk of infection.

Treat Hepatitis Infections

If you have chronic hepatitis B or C, getting effective antiviral treatment can reduce your chance of developing liver cancer. Make sure to get screened for hepatitis if you’re at risk.

Limit Alcohol Intake

Drinking alcohol, especially in excessive amounts, is linked to an increased risk of liver cancer. Limiting alcohol consumption to 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men can help keep your liver healthy.

Maintain a Healthy Weight

Being overweight or obese increases the risk of liver cancer. Losing weight if you are overweight and maintaining a healthy weight through diet and exercise can help prevent liver cancer.

Avoid Aflatoxins

Aflatoxins are toxic substances produced by mold that can contaminate crops and cause liver damage. Avoiding contaminated foods, such as improperly stored grains and nuts, can reduce exposure.

Get Screened if at High Risk

If you have chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis or a hepatitis infection, get screened periodically for liver cancer. Screening those at high risk can detect tumors early when they are easiest to treat.

What are the stages of liver cancer?

Liver cancer is staged based on several factors, including the size of the tumor, whether it has spread to nearby blood vessels, and whether it has metastasized to other parts of the body. Staging helps determine the best treatment options and prognosis.

Stage 0: Also called carcinoma in situ or very early cancer, the abnormal cells are only found in the innermost layer of the liver tissue. The cancer has not grown into deeper layers of the liver and is considered curable by surgery.

Stage I: The tumor is 2 cm or smaller and has not spread to blood vessels or lymph nodes. This is considered early stage liver cancer.

Stage II: The tumor is larger than 2 cm but smaller than 5 cm and has not spread.

Stage III: This is divided into two substages:

  • Stage IIIA: The cancer is larger than 5 cm and may have spread to nearby organs and/or lymph nodes.

  • Stage IIIB: The cancer has spread to nearby large blood vessels such as the major portal vein or hepatic veins.

Stage IV: The cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes and/or other organs such as the lungs, bones, or brain. This is considered advanced or metastatic liver cancer.

Staging helps determine the best treatment options and prognosis. Earlier stage cancers that have not spread have a better outlook. Once the cancer has metastasized, treatment is more difficult and survival rates are lower.

Is liver cancer the same as metastatic cancer to the liver?

Liver cancer can be classified as either primary or secondary (metastatic). Primary liver cancer starts within the liver, while metastatic liver cancer spreads to the liver from another part of the body.

The most common cancer that metastasizes to the liver is colorectal cancer. Other cancers, like breast, lung, and pancreatic, can also spread to the liver.

Primary and metastatic liver cancers are different in terms of treatment and prognosis. Primary liver cancer is treated with surgery, ablation, embolization, radiation, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. The 5-year survival rate is around 20%.

Metastatic liver cancer is treated by targeting the original cancer. This may include chemotherapy, radiation, or other systemic treatments. The prognosis depends on the extent of liver involvement and the primary cancer type. On average, metastatic liver cancer has a worse prognosis than primary liver cancer.

Distinguishing between primary and metastatic liver cancer is important, as the diagnostic workup, treatment options, and outlook can differ significantly between the two.

How common is liver cancer?

Liver cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths globally. Over 800,000 new cases of liver cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, resulting in over 700,000 deaths annually. This makes liver cancer the sixth most common cancer diagnosed across the globe.

The incidence of liver cancer has been steadily increasing in the United States over the past few decades. Approximately 42,000 Americans are diagnosed with liver cancer each year.

Liver cancer tends to be more prevalent in developing countries, especially in parts of Asia and Africa. This is partly due to higher rates of hepatitis B and C infection in these regions, which are major risk factors for liver cancer. More than 50% of liver cancer cases worldwide occur in China.

Overall, liver cancer accounts for over 5% of all cancer cases globally. It is over 3 times more common in men than women. Without significant advancements in treatment, the burden of liver cancer is expected to continue rising in the coming decades.

Does liver cancer affect more men or women?

Liver cancer does affect more men than women. This is evident as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of liver cancer, occurs approximately three times more often in males than in females1. The reason for this is not fully understood but it is believed to involve a combination of environmental, lifestyle, and potentially hormonal factors2.

There are clear gender disparities in the incidence rates, etiological differences in chronic liver disease, and the prognosis of HCC between men and women13. Additionally, the incidence of liver cancer is higher in males than in females with a reported ratio of 4 to 13. Factors such as chronic liver diseases can contribute to the rates of liver cancer and these often show clear gender disparities2.

The disparity is also influenced by more than just the environmental and lifestyle risk factors. While these factors are significant contributors, genetic and molecular differences between sexes can also influence susceptibility to liver cancer4.

In conclusion, liver cancer affects men at a significantly higher rate than women, although the exact reasons for this gender disparity are multi-factorial and not fully understood.

Sources:

  1. Gender differences in hepatocellular cancer: disparities in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis and liver transplantation https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347119/ ↩2
  2. Gender Differences in the Pathogenesis and Risk Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37508414/ ↩2
  3. Gender survival differences in hepatocellular carcinoma: Is it all due https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10230112/ ↩2
  4. Sex Differences in Cancer: Epidemiology, Genetics and Therapy https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6029678/

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